The dataset contains indicators for public and private innovation efforts. It is difficult to make a thorough distinction between R&D and innovation. However, R&D is considered to be the underlying source of inventions that drive innovation. More information is available in the ifo DICE Report 4/2019: Innovation Policy.
Note: BERD = R&D expenditure of the business sector
Innovation Effort Indicators
Innovation Effort Indicators | List of References
© 26.09.2021, Provided by Database for Institutional Comparisons in Economies (https://dice.elementsystems.io/en/node/454789)
|Joop Adema, Yvonne Giesing, Julia Gorochovskij, Tanja Stitteneder||ifo DICE Report 4/2019 Innovation Policy: Innovation - Global Trends and Regulation||2019||4||https://www.ifo.de/en/publikationen/2020/journal-complete-issue/ifo-dice-report-4-2019-winter-innovation-policy||2020-01-31||literature|